Notes for Baudrillard

Against this hegemony of the system, one can exalt the ruses of desire, practice revolutionary micrology of the quotidian, exalt the molecular drift or even defend cooking. This does not resolve the imperious necessity of checking the system in broad daylight. This, only terrorism can do.

J Baudrillard

I have disappeared and reappeared; I have juggled a fair few masks, gone into the depths of my underworlds, though perhaps never quite nether enough. I fear such reproaches, and since my heart is yours, let’s sit and think on it.

Humanity attempts to destroy the event, to secure against all emergence, and thus, being an improbable emergence, will destroy itself. The order of things becomes sedimented and words become obstacles which weigh down our spirits -the pastiche* of simulacra pharma-pornographically mines our feelings for views and clicks; in short, the last man’s ‘discovery’ of health and sex has not been a good one, and has only led to more self-despising through loss of spontaneity, vertigo, imagination and enigma. It is all about reversibility: ‘The American who first discovered Columbus made a bad discovery.’ (Lichtenberg)

I’m not talking about transparency in the sense that you see everything on television, but that television is watching you. It is all about reversibility, in the worst sense.

J Baudrillard
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Towards an Andean Philosophy (2015) – 12 Essays on the Andean Component of our Thought – IV: Critique of the ‘Andean Philosophy, Intercultural Study of Andean Wisdom’ – Mario Mejía Huamán



The purpose of this article is to make a critique of the arguments with which Josef Estermann in his book, ‘Andean Philosophy, Intercultural Study of Andean Wisdom,’ sustains the Study of Andean Autochthonous Wisdom that supports Andean Philosophy. To this end, we will first present what we consider to be the fundamental theses of his work, then we will subject said thesis to criticism and then suggest, in the conclusion, the path that should be followed to effectively create Andean Philosophy.


In order to locate the readers regarding the problem in question, we must inform them that in the last 50 years of the last century, the existence of a philosophy of Latin America has been a matter of concern; the Mexican Leopoldo Zea and the Peruvian Augusto Salazar Bondy participated in it. At first it was held that there was no Latin American philosophy properly speaking; that the philosophy made in this part of the continent was a mere imitation of French, English or German philosophical thought and, respectively, of each one of the philosophical currents that were gestating within it. In this regard, our compatriot José Carlos Mariátegui maintained that:

All the thinkers of our America have been educated in a European school. The spirit of the race [la raza] is not felt in their work. The intellectual production of the continent lacks its own features. It has no original contours Hispano-American Thought and is generally nothing but a rhapsody composed of motifs and elements of European thought“.100

The response of our thinkers at first was to reject the problem, under the assumption that philosophy, having a universal character, it was possible to search for a continental or regional philosophy. However, the response of some of the thinkers mentioned above was that this limitation be overcome and that
philosophical reflection be made based on what is ours, on our most pressing problems. More than one thinker suggested that an ethno-philosophy be made, based on our myths and traditions, because Latin America was very rich in them. With this last position, we agree, but the problem arises when a group of thinkers maintain that myth is already a philosophy; therefore, indigenous America would have already had a philosophy prior to its discovery. Our position is contrary to this position. The authentic philosophy of America is still in the making and is inspired by our conception of the world, our myths and the analysis of the concepts contained in our native languages and the rich traditions of life, work and coexistence. For about 20 years we have been involved in this debate and in the elaboration of this philosophy that we have called Andean Philosophy. Next we make the exhibition of the fundamental theses in the work of Josef Estermann.

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Towards an Andean Philosophy (2015) – 12 Essays on the Andean Component of our Thought – III: Analysis of Worldview and Philosophy – Mario Mejía Huamán



In order to help the kind reader who is not specialized in these subjects, we will elucidate the concepts beforehand: conception of the world and philosophy.

That which is called conception of the world, worldview or cosmovision is the total way of seeing the world or the total way of appreciating the world. With the term world we wish to refer not only to the physical nature that surrounds us but, to that spiritual world which is inherently human. We conceive that the vision of the world is different because the real men of each peoples and each nation are different, because they live Andean speaking in different pachas; that is, in different spaces and times. Furthermore, the worldview of the mid-sixteenth century of the Europeans, for example, was not the same as that of the American Indians of the same era.

In some visions, the magical or mythical vision, or religious, or aesthetic or scientific can prevail, these may have been integrated or combined with each other, with a primacy of one of them or, according to their cultural evolution, they have remained equal or have achieved other levels of conception.

As suggested by the authors whose texts we will discuss later, this, conception of the world, has been a historical reality; however, the tendency to universalize knowledge and culture, generally supported by political and economic power, has wanted to impose itself as something unique in different eras of human history.

For a better understanding of the matter, below we will present a parallel between the conception of the world brought by the Spanish at the time of the conquest and the conception of the Andean indigenous61 of the same period:

Conception of conquerors.Conception of the Andeans.
In the religious sphere:
The existence of one God. The existence of major and minor gods. Recognized
as supreme are : Mamapacha (mother nature),
the Inti (the Sun), Pachakamaq (the creator of the space, time and nature) and/or Wiraqocha (Supreme god).
Good and evil are principles that have actual existence.There is only the correct or the good (allin). The bad does not exist as a real entity.
In the cosmological sphere:
The universe is, at its beginning, in chaos.The universe, is at its beginning, in order.
The world is a “valley of tears”.Andeans have an aesthetic vision of the world.
In the anthropological sphere:
The appearance of man on earth by creation of a single couple in a edenic space is accepted.Wiraqocha creates several pairs/dyads and sends them to populate the different areas of the Andes.
The loss of the edenic state due to disobedience.In the Andes, man strive for the conservation of harmony in the relationships of men and nature.
Man’s work, childbirth and its dependency on women are taken as punishments.The work of the man and the woman giving birth are the highest expression of joy.
In the social sphere:
Individualistic conception of the manCollectivist conception of men.
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Towards an Andean Philosophy (2015) – 12 Essays on the Andean Component of our Thought – II: Proposal of a Philosophy for Andean World Objectives – Mario Mejía Huamán


The objectives of this exhibition are to show that: 1) Being a human means solving theoretical problems. 2) Philosophy solves problems through rational procedures. 3) That the blind trust of Western Culture in reason achieved in the eighteenth century, enters into crisis and runs out at the end of the twentieth century. 4) That it would be good for Western Culture to return to mythical relations and not lose magic and human warmth, and for Andean Culture to rationalize itself, without being hostile to the mythical vision of the world. In the first part we will use the theoretical framework proposed by the Peruvian philosopher Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias and in the second part our own conceptions.



Francisco Miró Quesada in his work, To start in philosophy55, maintains that:

“Of all the experiences that a human being can live, the most common and current is that he has problems. Having problems requires solving them”56.

For man, some problems are easy to solve, while others, because they compromise his being and existence, or as he says, because they are distressing, are difficult to solve. The Peruvian philosopher states that:

“… However we live and whatever we do, we are constantly dedicated to solving important or trivial problems. Their importance varies according to our temperament and according to the circumstances in which they arise.”57

For Miró Quesada it is the variety of procedures that men have used to solve their problems that is astonishing. For example, the Greeks prior to the seventh century of our era, -says the thinker- as many peoples still do, particularly in our mountains, resorted and still resort to magic and myth to solve problems, but beginning at the end of the 7th century, a group of men from Classical Greece resort to reason to solve problems. Thales of Miletus is one of the Greek sages who used rational procedures to solve theoretical problems; thus he solved a mathematical theorem, and predicted a lunar eclipse. In this way, mathematics and astronomy would emerge as the first fruits of the use of reason to solve problems. Since then it is conceived that the characteristics of all rational knowledge are universality and necessity.

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Towards an Andean Philosophy (2015) – 12 Essays on the Andean Component of our Thought – Andean Thought: Balance and Perspective – Mario Mejía Huamán



Under the title of Andean Thought, in this exposition, we will try to make a balance of the thought that has emerged in Peru and the Andes, inspired by the region’s own worldview, or that which has been created in response to the problems of this part of the world, to then point out its perspectives at the
gates of the 21st century. In this sense, we will first delimit the concepts of thought and philosophy.


We make this distinction because among those of us who dedicate ourselves to this type of speculation there are those who consider that philosophy existed in Peru since pre-Hispanic times. We consider that philosophy is a form of theoretical, rational, and critical knowledge, which explains the first causes, the meaning and the final destiny of the cosmos, of man, society and his thought. This way of knowing is capable of directing its own theoretical instruments to criticize itself. In contrast, what we call thought is the different forms of explanation that man has given himself regarding the world, nature and God. While the first is theoretical, critical and rational logic, the second has other forms of rationality based on heterodox logic and is not self-critical.


Since Philosophy is a rational explanation of the world, some thinkers have tried to demonstrate the existence of an Inka philosophy; above all, due to the influence of historians who find a balance between ayllu and pacha (socially considered man and nature) in the Inca Empire [Tawantinsuyo]. On the other hand, for another group of thinkers, the explanation given by the Inka wise me [Hamawt’as] would not have reached the philosophical level, but that of worldview, precisely because it was not theoretical, critical, and logical in the classical sense.

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Towards an Andean Philosophy (2015) – 12 Essays on the Andean Component of our Thought: Foreword and Presentation – Mario Mejía Huamán


Here is a valuable gift for all Peruvians: a unique book of its genre that gives us the opportunity to rescue our Incan roots as a valuable component of Peruvianity.

No other person is known who, such as Dr. Mario Mejía Huamán, has put so much interest into interpreting and being the bearer of the philosophical concepts that underlie the different customs and behavior of our people from the Andes [del ande]. Although we have not been able to decipher the writings [qelqas] of the Incan and pre-Incan settlers and today we cannot know for certain their concepts, beliefs, imaginings, etc., about so many philosophical topics, as they are conceived now, Andean thought can be known through its attitudes towards life, death, its peers, its concept of work, of life in the afterlife, of its customs to organize community work, its religious beliefs, many of which retain an Incan essence despite having undergone a process of transculturation with Western religion.

And one should not only use visual observation to discover the essence of the Andean world. It’s fundamental to do so through their own spoken language: Quechua; because the organization of languages, in general, implies an organization of the external world on the basis of language. So, just to give an example, some language recognizes only two colors where another recognizes three. And to achieve this total understanding you need to be a native speaker of Quechua.

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English/Spanish Selection from The Gathas (c. 1500 – 1000 BC) – Zarathustra 

O Mazdah Ahura- (mindful lord), come with long life of Asha (justice) gifts, with Vohu Manah (good disposition), With just utterances, and give (these) to Zarathushtra as the means-of a vigorous support.
(Then, give these) to us, that we (thereby) may overcome the hostilities of the enemy.

YASNA 28.6
Come Lord with loving Vahu Mano to us,
And bring the long enduring gifts of Truth
As promised, Mazda, in thy Words sublime;
Grant to Zarathushtra joy of Inner Life,
And to us all as well, O Ahura,
That we may overcome the hate of foes.

28.6 Oh Señor, ven hacia nosotros mediante Vohuman y Asha (puros pensamientos y la verdad) de acuerdo con Tus palabras sagradas y concédenos una vida larga y duradera. Oh sabio Ahura, concede a Zarathushthra y sus amigos la fortaleza espiritual y alegría, de manera que ellos puedan triunfar sobre el odio de sus enemigos.

Grant, O Asha (justice), this compensation: namely, the felicities of Vohu Manah (good disposition); Grant, O Armaiti (love), the wish of Vishtaspa and of myself; O Thou greatest Ruler, grant a (ready) hearing unto him-who prepares with the Word.

YASNA 28.7
That Blessing grant O Asha unto us,
That flows as Vahu Mano’s rich reward,
Armaiti, Holy Mother, do Thou grant,
Vishtaspa’s every wish, and of my men;
And, Mazda through Thy Power, thus decree,
That we, Thy Devotees, obey Thy Word.

28.7 Concédenos, Oh Asha, las bendiciones que emanan de pensamientos puros. Concéde Oh Armaiti, cada deseo para Vistaspas y para mis seguidores tambien Oh Mazda, Señor de La Sabiduría, concéde a tus devotos seguidores fuerza, de modo que tus santas enseñanzas puedan ser enseñadas a todo el mundo en general.

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The Complete Works of Octavio Paz – Tomb 1: The House of Presence – Foreword (1967)

The idea of collecting and publishing my writings in several volumes was born in the course of a conversation with Hans Meinke, director of the Círculo de Lectores. I thank you: without your friendly request I would not have dared to undertake such a complicated and laborious task. I confess that the idea of publishing my complete works had never occurred to me. The very notion of work was foreign to me. I have written and I write moved by contrary impulses: to penetrate myself and to flee from myself, for love of life and to take revenge on it, for longing for communion and to earn a few cents, to preserve the gesture of a loved person and to talk to a stranger, out of a desire for perfection and to let off steam, to stop the instant and to blow it up. In short, to live and to survive. For this reason, because I am still alive, I am now writing these lines. Will I survive? I neither know nor care: the desire for survival is, perhaps, madness, but it is an innate, common, inextinguishable madness.

Beyond my salvation or my otherworldly loss, I declare that when writing I opted for the most fragile and precious human faculty: memory. I pursue not the persistence of my person but that of a few poems. Ever since I read the Greek Anthology I envied Callimachus, Meleager, Philodemus, Paladas, Paul the Silentiary and others: they survive thanks to a handful of syllables. But I don’t feel I am able to choose between my writings. Its diversity inhibits me: poems, art and literary criticism, a biography that is also a literary study and a historical picture, essays on moral and political issues, notes and articles on the topics and concerns of our time, ramblings, glosses . Furthermore, taste and judgment—the two weapons of criticism—change with the years and even with the hours: we hate at night what we love in the morning. Finally, we authors are almost always poor judges of our works. The example of the Greek Anthology taught me that the only true anthology is time. To publish a dozen volumes collecting my writings is not so much to challenge it as to submit to its judgement. Wise and capricious as the wind, time does not seem to know what it is doing, and yet it is rarely wrong. I leave my works to time; by scattering them with absent-minded hands, it may drop, in the memory of some readers, fortuitous seeds, a poem or two, a reflection, a note.

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OF MY LIFE: AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL WRITINGS OF YOUTH (1856 – 1869) – Friedrich Nietzsche – Part 2: On Music

On Music

God has granted us music, first of all, so that through it we can ascend to the heights. Music gathers in itself all qualities and attributes: it can move, enthrall, bring calm; it is able to tame the roughest mood with its delicate melancholy tones. But its essential faculty is to direct our thoughts upwards, to elevate us, to shock us. This is, above all, the purpose of religious music. But it is deplorable that this kind of music finds itself further and further from its aim. To this aim also belong choirs. Today there are many of these, which with their languid melodies move away exceptionally from the impetus and strength of the ancients. Music also brightens the mood and drives away black thoughts. Who would not have felt overwhelmed by silence, by the most splendid peace when he listens to the simple melodies of Haydn! Music often speaks to us more deeply than the words of poetry, insofar as it clings to the innermost crevices of the heart. All that the Lord gives us has to serve us as a blessing if we use it correctly and wisely. Thus, the song raises our spirit and leads it towards goodness and truth. If music is only used for entertainment, or as a means of showing off among men, it shall be sinful and insane. And it is precisely this that abounds: almost all modern music bears its mark. Something that is also very sad is that almost all modern composers insist on writing with darkness. However, it is very likely that these periods so artificial that, perhaps enchanting the specialist, they leave the healthy ear cold. Above all, the so-called «music of the future» of a Liszt, of a Berlioz, tries to show that something more extravagant is not possible. Music also provides a pleasant entertainment, protecting everyone who is interested in her. Human beings who despise her must be regarded as “soulless people,” as animal-like creatures. This supreme gift from God has accompanied me throughout my life and I can consider myself very happy to have loved her so much. Let us give thanks to God who offers us such a beautiful pleasure.

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The Olympics and Tlatelolco (1969) – Octavio Paz

1968 was an axial year: protests, disturbances and revolts in Prague, Chicago, Paris, Tokyo, Belgrade, Rome, Mexico, Santiago… In the same way that medieval epidemics did not respect religious borders or social hierarchies, the youth rebellion annulled ideological classifications. This spontaneous universality of the protest was matched by a no less spontaneous and universal reaction: governments invariably attributed the disorders to a conspiracy from abroad. Although the assumptions and inspiring secrets were almost the same everywhere, in each country their names were shuffled differently. Sometimes there were curious, involuntary coincidences; for example, it was the same for the government of Mexico as for the French Communist Party: the students were impelled by agents of Mao and the CIA. Also notable was the absence or, in the case of France, the reluctance of the class traditionally considered as revolutionary per se: the proletariat. Until now, the only allies of the students have been the marginal groups that the technological society has been unable or unwilling to integrate. It is clear that we are not facing a resurgence of class struggle but rather a revolt of those sectors that, in a permanent or transitory way, the technological society has placed on the periphery. Students fall into the second of these categories. In addition, it is the only truly international group; all young people from developed countries are part of the international youth subculture, itself a product of an equally international technology.

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